8 years) was basically randomized to help you everyday calcium supplements supplements (step 1,2 hundred milligrams) having few years. While zero rise in the danger to own prostate malignant tumors might have been said throughout the good ten.step three-seasons realize-up, calcium supplementation lead to a significant chance losing that time comprising regarding couple of years immediately following treatment reach a couple of years immediately after therapy finished (150). From inside the a review of the books published during 2009, the usa Department getting Healthcare Search and you will High quality showed that perhaps not the epidemiological knowledge receive a link anywhere between calcium intake and you will prostate cancer tumors (151). The new opinion stated that six away from eleven observational education failed to locate statistically tall self-confident connections ranging from prostate cancer tumors and you may calcium supplements consumption. Yet, in the five training, every day intakes away from 921 in order to 2,100000 mg from calcium supplements have been discovered to be with the a keen enhanced risk of development prostate cancers when compared to consumption ranging out of 455 to one,100 milligrams/day (151). Inconsistencies among degree highly recommend state-of-the-art interactions amongst the chance products having prostate cancers, along with reflect the problems away from assessing the effect out of calcium supplements intake inside free-living some body. Like, the fact those with highest whole milk and you will/or calcium supplements intakes was in fact discovered to be likely to be engaged in compliment lifestyles or maybe more gonna search medical assistance can also be decrease the brand new analytical requirement for an association which have prostate cancer tumors chance (152).
Perform calcium improve the risk having heart problems?
Numerous observational education and randomized managed examples have raised concerns from the potential negative effects away from calcium into the cardiovascular chance. The research of data throughout the Kuopio Osteoporosis Chance Grounds and you will Protection (OSTPRE) possible research unearthed that profiles of calcium supplements amongst ten,555 Finnish people (decades 52-62 decades) had a beneficial fourteen% higher risk of creating coronary artery disease than the low-supplement users during the a hateful pursue-right up out-of six.75 age (153). The target examination of 23,980 professionals (35-64 years old) of your own Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Study into the Cancer tumors and you will Nutrients cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) observed you to definitely extra calcium supplements intake try absolutely of the exposure from myocardial infarction (stroke) not with the risk of stroke otherwise heart problems (CVD)-associated death after a suggest pursue-right up from eleven many years (154). Yet, the application of calcium (?400 mg/date compared to. 0 milligrams/day) are from the a greater risk of CVD-relevant mortality in the 219,059 boys, yet not from inside the 169,170 female, as part of the Federal Institute away from Fitness (NIH)-AARP Diet and Fitness research and you will adopted for an indicate several months away from twelve age. CVD mortality inside guys was also discovered to be rather large with overall (slimming down also extra) calcium supplements intakes of 1,five-hundred milligrams/date and you will more than (155).
Through to the dating between calcium and prostate malignant tumors are made clear, it is sensible for men to consume a maximum of 1,100 to a single,200 mg/day of calcium (dieting and tablets mutual), that’s needed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute from Medication (select RDA) (9)
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including russian-dating.com avis myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).